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Name Term description
ECB - European Central Bank

Organisation which, together with National Central Banks, constitutes the European System of Central Banks (ESCB), with the responsibility for monetary policy in the 3rd and final stage of Economic and Monetary Union.


European Conference of Ministers of Transport


The European Ecolabel is a voluntary scheme, established in 1992 to encourage businesses to market products and services that are kinder to the environment. Today the EU Ecolabel covers a wide range of products and services, with further groups being continuously added. Product groups include cleaning products, appliances, paper products, textile and home and garden products, lubricants and services such as tourist accommodation.

Economic activity

An activity is said to take place when resources such as equipment, labour, manufacturing techniques, information networks or products are combined, leading to the creation of specific goods or services. An activity is characterised by an input of products (goods or services), a production process and an output of products.

Economic activity (or sole activity)

Is intended as the field where a person carries out a work activity. As a rule, it is determined according to the principal (or sole) activity of the local unit where the given person works.

Economic aggregates

Enable to measure the result of all the operations carried out by the economic units. They break down into two categories:1. aggregates directly related to the operations of the system (production of goods and services, final consumption, gross fixed investments, compensation of employees, etc.);2. aggregates that represent the accounting balances (gross domestic product, national savings, etc.).

Economic territory

The term economic territory means:- the geographic territory administered by a government within which persons, goods, services and capital move freely;- any free zones, including bonded warehouses and factories under customs control;- the national air-space, territorial waters and the continental shelf lying in international waters, over which the country enjoys exclusive rights;- territorial enclaves, i.e. geographic territories situated in the rest of the world and used, under international treaties or agreements between States, by general government agencies of the country (embassies, consulates, military bases, scientific bases etc.);- deposits of oil, natural gas, etc. in international waters outside the continental shelf of the country, worked by units resident in the territory as defined in the preceding subparagraphs.The economic territory does not include extraterritorial enclaves (i.e. the parts of the country's own geographic territory used by general government agencies of other countries, by the Institutions of the European Union or by international organisations under international treaties or agreements between States)..

Elderliness index

Ratio of the population aged over 65 years to the population aged under 15 years (%)

Elderly dependency index

Ratio of the population aged over 64 years to the population of working age (15-64 years) (%)

Electricity consumption

Electricity invoiced by suppliers plus the one used by self-producers.

Electricity, consumption of the electricity sector

Electricity used by auxiliary services of plants generating and supplying electricity and by offices of the electricity sector.


The EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) is a management tool for companies and other organisations to evaluate, report and improve their environmental performance. Since 2001 EMAS has been open to all economic sectors including public and private services.In 2009 the EMAS Regulation has been revised and modified for the second time. Regulation (EC) No 1221/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2009 on the voluntary participation by organisations in a Community eco-management and audit scheme (EMAS) was published on 22 December 2009 and entered into force on 11 January 2010


Direct release of a pollutant to air


Person engaged to work in an enterprise under a regular contract, according to which they receive a pay. Employees comprise: managers, clerical workers, intermediate workers, manual workers, apprentices. Also included are those workers who are temporarily absent from work (because of holidays, maternity licence, temporary redundancy (see Government temporary lay-off indemnity), while those who are temporarily working abroad are considered so only if they are paid by the enterprise in Italy.


Employees are defined as those persons who work for an employer and who have a contract of employment and receive compensation in the form of wages, salaries, fees, gratuities, piecework pay or remuneration in kind.The relationship of employer to employee exists when there is an agreement, which may be formal or informal, between an enterprise and a person, normally entered into voluntarily by both parties, whereby the person works for the enterprise in return for remuneration in cash or in kind.Employees includes part-time workers, seasonal workers, persons on strike or on short-term leave, but excludes those persons on long-term leave. Employees does not include voluntary workers.

Employment (economic accounts)

In the national accounts employment is defined as all persons, both employees and self-employed persons, engaged in some productive activity that falls within the production boundary of the country and that is undertaken by a resident institutional unit.This definition is different from the one adopted on household surveys (such as the Labour force survey), which refer to the place of residence of the employed person. In the economic accounts employment refers instead to the location of the production unit.

Employment rate

Employment rate represent persons in employment as a percentage of the population of working age (15-64 years)

Enterprise closed down

Closing down is intended as the definitive cessation of the enterprise's activity (including bankruptcy).

Enterprise (Statistical register, Istat)

The definitions of the statistical units adopted in ASIA are in line with those set out in European Council Regulation 696 / 1993. This regulation identifies the enterprise as the central unit for the production of economic statistics, and defines it as ?the smallest combination of legal units that is an organizational unit producing goods or services, which benefits from a certain degree of autonomy in decision-making, especially for the allocation of its current resources. An enterprise carries out one or more activities at one or more locations. An enterprise may be a sole legal unit.

Entitlement to use (a housing unit)

The principal types of entitlement to use a housing unit are: property, tenancy, sub-tenancy, use free of charge, use for the supply of services.


Person who runs their own business (agricultural, industrial or commercial), where the work activity is performed by employees.

Environmental impact assessment

An environmental impact assessment (EIA) is an assessment of the possible positive or negative impact that a proposed project may have on the environment, together consisting of the natural, social and economic aspects.


The central banking system of the European Union. It comprises the ECB and the national central banks of all EU Member States (but the national central banks of EU Member States whose currency is not the euro are not involved in the conduct of the Eurosystem's monetary policy for the euro area because they retain responsibility for monetary policy under national law).


see Local unit

European Court of Human Rights (ECHR)

The European Court of Human Rights is an international court set up in 1959. It rules on individual or State applications alleging violations of the civil and political rights set out in the European Convention on Human Rights. Since 1998 it has sat as a full-time court and individuals can apply to it directly.

European System of Accounts (ESA)

he European System of National and Regional Accounts (1995 ESA, or simply: ESA) is an internationally compatible accounting framework for a systematic and detailed description of a total economy (that is a region, country or group of countries), its components and its relations with other total economies.The 1995 ESA is fully consistent with the revised world-wide guidelines on national accounting, the System of National Accounts (1993 SNA) and replaces the European System of Integrated Economic Accounts published in 1970.

European System of National and Regional Accounts (ESA)

The European System of National and Regional Accounts (1995 ESA, or simply: ESA) is an internationally compatible accounting framework for a systematic and detailed description of a total economy (that is a region, country or group of countries), its components and its relations with other total economies.The 1995 ESA is fully consistent with the revised world-wide guidelines on national accounting, the System of National Accounts (1993 SNA) and replaces the European System of Integrated Economic Accounts published in 1970.The ESA encompasses concepts of population and employment. These concepts are relevant for both the sector accounts and the input-output framework. The ESA is not restricted to annual national accounting, but applies also to quarterly accounts and regional accounts.


Is a person who goes to a place different from those he/she normally frequents, for a period of time of less than 24 hours, without overnight stay.

Expenditure capacity

ratio of commitment to outlays during the reference period

Experimental development

Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and practical experience, that is directed to producing new materials, products and devices; to installing new processes, systems and services; or to improving substantially those already produced or installed.


Exports of goods and services consist of transactions in goods and services (sales, barter, gifts or grants) from residents to non-residents. Their value is calculated FOB (free on board), which corresponds to the price at the border of the exporting country.


Exports from a given Member State are:a) goods which leave the statistical territory of the Member State bound for a non-member country, having gone through:the customs export procedure (final export, export following inward processing, etc.); or the customs outward-processing procedure (usually goods destined to be processed, transformed or repaired for subsequent re-import).b) Some movements of goods are included in Eurostat statistics according to specific rules. In particular, ships and aircraft are included in dispatches of a given Member State when ownership is being transferred from a person established in this Member State to a person established in another Member State.

Extra high tension

Nominal tension exceeding 220 kV.

Extraordinary intervention (Government Temporary Lay-off Indemnity)

takes place for industrial or commercial enterprises in case of re-organisation or conversion of the enterprise, i.e. for reasons internal to the enterprise.