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Name Term description
Para-subordinate worker

Self employed worker who carries out a work activity with a contract of collaboration for specific projects.

Part-time workers

Part-time employees are considered to be those who, in accordance with a contract with the employer, do not perform a full day's work or do not complete a full week's work within the local unit.

Penal institution

Is a penitentiary where sentences are served, either in the case of preventive detention or in the case of a final sentence.


Pensions are periodical and regular amounts of money paid to individual persons by Public Administrations and Bodies and are due when:- the person reaches a certain age; - the social contributions, after having been accrued for a minimum period, become due for payment ;- the person is unable to work because of disability (congenital or unexpected);- the person entitled to the pension dies (reversionary pension);- the person has a particular merit towards the Country.

Pension adjustment

Annual revaluation of the pension, according to the increase in the cost of life measured by Istat.

Pension entitlement age / retirement age

Age, defined by law, at which a worker can retire from work and is entitled to receive an old pension

Perinatal mortality rate

Ratio of still births plus deaths before one week of life to the number of live births.


Publication containing news on recent events or subjects of particular or general interest. Every issue, which is published at regular intervals (normally once a week), is characterised by a sequential numbering.

Permanent crops

Crops not grown in rotation, other than permanent grassland, which occupy the soil for a long period and yield crops over several years.

Permanent crops

Comprise, amongst others: grapes, olives, citrus fruit, plant nurseries, canes, mulberry leaves.

Permanent employment

Employment is intended as regular or permanent when the date of the conditions for its termination are not defined.

Permanent grasslands and pastures

Land used permanently (for five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops, through cultivation (sown) or naturally (self-seeded), and that is not included in the crop rotation on the holding.The land can be used for grazing or mown for silage, hay or used for renewable energy production.

Person employed in R&D

Person employed in a juridical-economic unit and directly involved in R&D activity. The person may eithe be self-employed or employee and work part-time or full-time.

Person injured (in a road accident)

Any person not killed, but who sustained an injury as result of an injury accident, normally needing medical treatment.

Person killed (in a road accident)

Any person killed immediately or dying within 30 days as a result of an injury accident. (For countries that do not apply this definition, conversion coefficients are estimated so that comparisons on the basis of the 30 day-definition can be made)

Persons in employment

All persons aged 15 and over who during the reference week worked at least one hour for pay or profit, or were temporarily absent from such work. Family workers are included

Person working on their own

Person who runs a small-sized business (agricultural, industrial, commercial, craft-based, etc.) where they participate with their own manual work.

Pharmaceuticals and related products

This group comprises:- all types of medicine, including vitamins and diet products;- thermometers, ice bags, first-aid articles, wheelchairs, physiotherapy equipment, etc.

Plant nursery

Area cultivated with wooden and herbaceous plants that will be replanted in other areas.

Plant protection products

Preparations that can be used in the form they are supplied to the consumers. Are intended for the following purposes:a) to destroy organisms that may damage plants or vegetable products or to prevent from their damaging action;b) to favour or regulate the production of vegetables, excluding the case of fertilisers or substances intended to improve the quality of the soil.c) to preserve vegetable products, including those used in the protection of wood;d) to destroy harmful plants;e) to destroy certain parts of plants or to avoid their developmentThese include herbicides, fungicides, pesticides and other similar inorganic and organic substances (e.g. poisoned bait).

Pollutants monitored

Sulphur oxides (SOx); Nitrogen oxides (NOx); Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC); Methane (CH4); Carbon monoxide (CO);Carbon dioxide (CO2); Ammonia (NH3); Nitrous oxide (N2O);Heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn); Particulate matter (size < 10 micrometers) (PM10); Particulate matter (size < 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5), C 6 H 6 =benzene; O 3 ozone; Fluorinate gas (HFCs, PFCs, SF 6 ); HFCs=hydro-fluorocarbon

Poplar woods

Areas used for the cultivation of poplars, even though the soil is partially used for marginal herbaceous cultivations.

Population density

Population density is the ratio between (total) population and surface (land) area. This ratio can be calculated for any territorial unit for any point in time, depending on the source of the population data.


Total volume of atmospheric wet precipitation (rain, snow, hail, ....). Precipitation is usually measured by meteorological or hydrological institutes.

Premium (INAIL)

Corresponds to the cost of the insurance against occupational accidents or professional diseases. For employees it is paid by the employer, for autonomous workers (craftsmen, traders, sharecroppers) it is paid by the workers themselves.

Present population

The population present in a given Commune (and, by analogy, in other territorial divisions) comprises those persons who were present on the reference date, who normally lived in the same Commune or in another one. Also included are, therefore, foreigners who are temporarily living in the given commune for a period shorter than one year (seasonal workers, travelling persons, etc.)

Principal dwelling

Housing unit where the household normally lives

Principal nutrition elements (fertilisers)

comprise nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

Principal (or main) economic activity

The principal (or main) activity is identified as the activity which contributes most to the total value added of a unit under consideration. The principal activity so identified does not necessarily account for 50% or more of the unit's total value added.

Principal work activity

Activity by means of which a person obtains most of their income or to which a person dedicated most of his working time. In the case of difficulty in defining the principal activity, another variables are taken into consideration (regularity of the work, etc.).


Number of copies of a book, printed simultaneously with the same characteristics.

Private partnerships

Juridical form that comprises: general or unlimited partnerships, limited partnerships, "de facto" partnerships; simple partnerships.

Probability of death at the age "x"

Represents a person's risk of dying between the birthday "x" and the subsequent one.

Producer of electricity

Natural or legal person that produces electricity. It may not be the owner of the generating plant.

Producer price

Cost of the goods and services used in the production plus the remuneration of the production factors.

Production account

In this account are recorded all operations concerning the production process in its strict sense. This account is tabulated either by branch or by sector. Ingoings are represented by the output while outgoings by intermediate consumption.The balance represents value-added at market prices.

Production means (agriculture)

Technical means use in agricultural productions. They include: plant protection products, fertilisers, seeds, feedstuffs, mechanical means, fuels, electricity, etc.


As a rule, productivity is defined as the ratio of production to the total factors used in the production itself.


Persons who carries out on their own a professional activity or art (notary, lawyer, doctor, dentist, architect, etc.).

Professional condition

Refers to people's position in the labour market. A person in employment or unemployed seeking a new job is considered as in professional condition.

Professional disease, report

If a professional disease occurs, the employee must inform the employer within 15 days, and present the medical certificate. Within five days the employer must report the disease to INAIL.

Professional qualification exam

Exam held at the end of the 3-year courses of professional institutes or art institutes. Students who pass the exam are awarded a school-leaving certificate recognised by the State.

Professional status

Is intended as the level of autonomy and/or responsibility as well as the "function" performed by a worker in the workplace (see Manager, Middle-manager, Clerical worker, Intermediate worker, Manual worker, Apprentice, Entrepreneur, Persons working on his/her own, Professional, Family worker, Member of co-operative).

Propensity to export

Value of exports as % of the total producton value.

Propensity to save

Is the ratio of gross saving to the gross disposable income of households.

Protected area

Ecosystem that is protected in order to preserve its biodiversity. The objective is to favour a sustainable development of the territory.

Protection oases

areas used for the refuge and reproduction of wild animals.

Public Administration

Comprises all institutional units whose activity consists in producing non-marketable services and in re-distribution of the nation's income and welfare. The principal resources are originated from compulsory deposits (direct or indirect) made by units operating in other sectors. The Public Administration sector is composed of three sub-sectors: - General Government central administrations and Bodies other than Social Security Institutes, which have jurisdiction over the whole national territory; - Local Administrations, which have jurisdiction over a part of the territory (e.g. Regions, Provinces; Communes, public hospitals, chambers of commerce, universities, etc.); - Social insurance bodies.

Public Prosecutor's office

Judicial office present in the Courts of Appeal, the High Courts and the Magistrates' Courts.The Public Prosecutor is responsible, for the judicial police of the district and for criminal procedures.The High-Court Public prosecutor is responsible for the judicial police in the Court of Appeal District and normally performs, in appeal, the activity of Public Prosecutor.

Public school

Comprises the state school and the public non-state school


Person or entity responsible for the publication of a book or document. Istat statistics on book production cover not only publishing houses, but also entities for which publishing is not the prevalent activity.

Publishing industry

Economic sector whose prevalent activity is the publication and distribution of books.

Purchase and sale of real estate

Contracts relating to the purchase and sale of: rural buildings, residential buildings, buildings for commercial or industrial use, buildings used as offices, buildings for special use.

Purchase price

The purchase price is the price the purchaser actually pays for the products. It includes taxes less subsidies on products (but excludes deductible taxes like deductible VAT).

Purchasing power of households

Gross disposable income of households, calculated in real terms using the deflator for final consumption expenditure of households and non-prodit institutions. It is expressed in chained values (the reference year is 2000).

Pure wood

Wood where plants of a same species account for at least 9/10 of the total area.