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Name Term description
Labour cost

Is defined as the total expenditure borne by employers in order to employ workers, a concept which has been adopted in the Community framework and complies broadly with the international definition of the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (Geneva, 1966). Labour costs include the direct costs linked to remuneration for work carried out such as direct remuneration, bonuses and ex gratia payments not paid at each pay period, payments for days not worked, severance pay, benefits in kind. They also include indirect costs linked to employees, independently of the remuneration paid by the employer, such as collectively agreed, contractual and voluntary social security contributions, direct social benefits, vocational training costs, other social expenditure (cultural and medical services, transport costs, etc.), and taxes relating to employment regarded as labour costs, less any subsidies received

Labour dispute

Is an issue between employer and employees that may generate a temporary suspension of the work activity or absence of the workers from the workplace.

Labour force

The labour force comprises persons in employment and unemployed persons

Labour productivity

Is the ratio of the value of production to the value (or quantity) of labour required for the production itself. Labour can be measured either in terms of number of workers or hours of work.

Labour unit (full-time equivalent)

Is used to quantify in a homogeneous way the level of employment. This is necessary due to the fact that a same worker may have one or more working situations, which depend on:- the activity (sole, principal, secondary);- the professional status (employee, self-employed);- duration of employment (regular, temporary);- work time (part-time of full-time);- situation concerning social contributions (regular, irregular).The standard labour unit is intended as the quantity of work that is carried out, during the year of reference, by a full-time worker. This concept is no longer related to the "worker", but represents the number of hours of work carried out in a full time job.

Large-scale distribution

Large-scale distribution comprises the following categories of fixed retail outlets: supermarkets, hypermarkets, hard discounts, department stores, other specialised outlets with a large sales area.

Large-sized enterprise (trade)

In the commercial sector, a large-sized enterprise is that enterprise that has at least six persons employed (employees or self-employed). These enterprises are grouped into two categories: businesses with large-scale distribution outlets and businesses operating with small area outlets.

Large-sized publishers

Publishers that during the year published more than 50 books.

Length of service pension

Pension paid to workers who are not old enough to retire from work but who have paid a minimum amount of contributions.

Level of educational attainment

Represents a school-leaving certificate, to which the Government attributes legal value, obtained after a regular cycle of studies (primary school, lower secondary school, upper secondary school, university).


Organisation (or part of it) whose aim is to keep a collection of documents and publications that can be consulted by the public.

Life expectancy at age "x"

Represents the average number of years that persons aged "x" are expected to live.

Life expectancy at birth (or average age)

Number of years a newborn child is expected to live.

Literate with no study qualification

Persons who declared to be able to read and/or write, despite not having the primary school certificate; pupils (even if, on the reference date, they were enrolled in the first year of primary school); persons who obtained the special school-leaving certificate (third year of primary school) before the year 1955 (when such certificate was abolished).

Live birth

The complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of human conception, irrespective of the duration of gestation, which after such expulsion or extraction, breathes or shows any of the evidence of life.

Livestock, number of head

Data on livestock refer to all head that on the survey date were present in the agricultural holding. They include livestock temporarily absent for pasture and exclude livestock belonging to other holdings but temporarily present (such as females for covering).

Local Health Unit (ASL)

Local unit providing health services to citizens. Each Local Health Unit covers a geographical area, usually corresponding to a province

Local unit

Enterprises may operate just in one place or in several places by means of different local units, which may be localised in a same province or in different ones.Local units may freely be defined by entrepreneurs as: branches, agencies, warehouses, stores, etc.)According to the definition adopted by ISTAT, a local unit is intended as a unit (or set of units) that is localised in a given place and may have varied denominations (establishment, laboratory, outlet, restaurant, bar, office, etc.), where production or sales or supply of services are carried out.

Location of the enterprise headquarters

Within the Business Register, the enterprise headquarters can be located:- in the province (i.e. in the same province as the one of the Chamber of Commerce providing the information); - outside the province (i.e. in a province other than the one of Chamber of Commerce providing the information);

Long-term unemployment rate

Persons who have been seeking employment for 12 months or more as a percentage of the labour force.

Losses in the electricity network

Difference between the quantity of electricity required and consumption, including that of the electricity sector.

LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas

LPG s principally composed of propane, butane and mixtures, it can be liquefied by means of pressure so as to facilitate transport and storing. LPG can be used as fuel for domestic use and for heating, as air spray propellant and as fuel for vehicles.