RSY Lombardia updated to 2014 July
 
Synthesis indicators
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LOMBARDIA and ITALY
Regional rankings
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ITALIAN REGIONS
Glossary

Cancellations from the population register see Migration
CAP Common Agricultural Policy
Capital account In this account are recorded all operations concerning investment in non-financial assets and capital transfers.Ingoings comprise gross saving and capital transfers received.Outgoings comprise gross investment and capital transfers disbursed.The balance represents a debt or credit position.
Capital transfers Are made mainly to finance investment expenses or other forms of accumulation, their objective it to re-distribute saving and wealth. They comprise: taxes on capital, contributions to investments, other capital transfers.
Cargo (air transport) Comprises freight plus mail, expressed in tonnes
Cash and Carry Is a wholesale outlet that has a sales area in excess of 400 m2 where clients pay cash against invoice, and are responsible for the transport of the goods purchased.
Census Survey aimed at assessing the number, the principal characteristics and the distribution over the territory of a population. The Census is a direct survey, every unit is enumerated separately, together with its characteristics, according to the survey plan. In Italy the Censuses are taken every ten years, and cover: population, households, housing (General Census of Population and Housing), enterprises operating in the industry and tertiary sectors (General Census of Industry and Services), agricultural holdings (General Census of Agriculture). A Census is a "total survey", since it covers all units in the universe of reference. In fact, the phrase "uncompleted census" is used when the survey did not succeed in covering all units in the population.
Changes in inventories Changes in inventories are measured by the value of the entries into inventories less the value of withdrawals and the value of any recurrent losses of goods held in inventories.
CIF (cost, insurance and freight) The c.i.f. price is the price of a good delivered at the frontier of the importing country, or the price of a service delivered to a resident, before the payment of any import duties or other taxes on imports or trade and transport margins within the country
Cinema A place designed for the exhibition of films. Cultural statistics refer to cinemas that are open for more than 60 days per year.
Citrus fruit Oranges, tangerines, lemons, grapefruit, etc.
Civil invalidity allowance Allowance paid to persons aged between 18 and 65 years whose working capability is lower than 100% (but greater than 73%). The benefits is granted to all Italian and EU citizens and to refugees resident in Italy.
Civil proceeding, cognitive Proceeding to verify the juridical aspects of a controversy. Is composed of three stages: introduction of the action, inquiry, decision.
Civil proceeding, precautionary Proceeding aimed at obtaining, from the Judge, a measure to ensure that a person's rights are maintained while awaiting for the judgement of the rights themselves.
Clerical worker Worker having certain responsibilities and autonomy (technical, scientific or business-related), within the limits established by principles or procedures. For the army: sub-officers.
Co-edition Production of a book with the contribution of more than one publisher.
Co-habitation A group of persons that are not bound by marriage, relationship, kinship, etc., who are resident in the same commune and live together for religious, health-care, military or other reasons. Persons living in co-habitation due to employment or work reasons are to be considered as co-habitants, provided that such group is not an independent household. Temporary members of co-habitations are those persons who are temporarily (or occasionally) present at the co-habitation (e.g. guests in hotels, prisoners doing sentences lower than 5 years, etc.).
Co-incineration plant any stationary or mobile plant whose main purpose is the generation of energy or production of material products and:- which uses wastes as a regular or additional fuel; or- in which waste is thermally treated for the purpose of disposal.If co-incineration takes place in such a way that the main purpose of the plant is not the generation of energy or production of material products but rather the thermal treatment of waste, the plant shall be regarded as an incineration plant.
Co-production (books) Production of a book with the participation of one publisher and or more enterprises not belonging to the publishing sector.
COFOG Classification of the Functions of Government
COICOP Classification of Individual (final) Consumption by Purpose (households)
COICOP Classification of individual consumption by purpose
Collective accommodation establishment Accommodation establishment that provides overnight lodging for the traveller in a room or some other unit, but the number of places it provides must be greater than a specified minimum for groups of persons exceeding a single family unit and all the places in the establishment must come under a common commercial-type management, even if it is non-profit-making. They include hotels and similar establishments, specialised establishments, other establishments.
Collective labour contracts Agreements and contracts stipulated between the associations representing employers and those representing workers (unions).
Combined transport Intermodal transport where the major part of the European journey is by rail, inland waterways or sea and any initial and/or final legs carried out by road are as short as possible.
Commercial air transport An air transport flight or series of flights for the public transport of passengers and/or freight and mail, for remunerationor for hire. It includes scheduled air services and non-scheduled air services (charter and air taxi)
Compensation of employees Compensation of employees is defined as the total remuneration, in cash or in kind, payable by an employer to an employee in return for work done by the latter during the accounting period.Compensation of employees is broken down into:a) wages and salaries: wages and salaries in cash; wages and salaries in kind;b) employers' social contributions: employers' actual social contributions; employers' imputed social contributions.
Compostable area comprises arable land (including kitchen gardens and excluding fallow lands) and permanent crops.
Composting Biological process that submits biodegradable waste to anaerobic or aerobic decomposition, and that results in a product that is recovered.
Concentration (plant protection products) relation between the active principles and the quantity of product that contains them.
Concentration of pollutants Quantity of pollutants present in the atmosphere per volume unit, generally expressed in grams per cubic metre, is used to indicate values of air quality
Consumer price index for households of wage and salary earners refers to the consumption of households of employees. It used, in general, to adapt monetary values (e.g. rent) to inflation
Consumption goods A consumption good or service is defined as a good or service that is used (without further transformation in production) by households, NPISHs or government units for the direct satisfaction of individual needs (or wants) or the collective needs of members of the community.
Consumption, final Final consumption represents the value of goods and services intended for persons' needs; which may be individual (households' final consumption) or collective (public consumption, that is, of the Public Administration and of privately owned social institutions). Households' final consumption comprises goods and services that are normally used by the households themselves: food products, clothing, house equipment, rent, domestic services, health services and other marketable services. Public consumption comprises non-marketable services that are provided by the Public Administration and privately owned social institutions to the population as a whole. It is not possible do determine exactly the value of the services provided to every single person. These services are classified into: - final domestic consumption: when made in the economic territory of the Country by resident and non-resident units; - final national consumption: when made in the economic territory of the Country and abroad by resident units.
Consumption, intermediate Intermediate consumption represents the value of all the goods and services provided by productive units to other productive units, with the aim to produce other goods and services. Capital goods are not included.
Contribution period Includes all contributions, relating to: actual payments, retroactive payments, as well as any imputable contributions (e.g. military services, maternity leave, etc.).
Contributions to investments Contributions are those payments (unsecuritised), made by the Public Administration or by the rest of the world, that are intended to finance (totally or in part) specific gross investments carried out by other units.
Contributions to production Are current transfers made by the Public Administration or by EU Institutions to resident units that produce marketable services. The aim is to intervene on prices and/or to allow a sufficient remuneration of the production factors.
Conventional energy sources Fuel oil, coal and natural gas
Copni Classification of the Purposes of Non-Profit Institutions Serving Households
Corinair (CORe INventory of AIR emissions) CORINAIR was a project performed since 1995 by the then European Topic Centre on Air Emissions under contract to the European Environment Agency. The aim was to collect, maintain, manage and publish information on emissions into the air, by means of a European air emission inventory and database system. This concerns air emissions from all sources relevant to the environmental problems of climate change, acidification, eutrophication, tropospheric ozone, air quality and dispersion of hazardous substances. Before 1995 the CORINAIR project was developed under the CORINE programme of the EU (CO-oRdination d?INformation Environnementale, a programme established by Council Decision 85/338/EEC).
Council of State Is based in Rome and constitutes the supreme advisory organ as concerns legislation and issues of all kinds. Is competent for decisions on appeals concerning: lack of jurisdiction, excess of power, law infringements, measures taken by Administrative Authorities.
Country of consignment In Extra-EU trade, country of consignment means the country from which the goods were initially dispatched to the importing Member State, without any halt or legal operation not inherent in their transport having occurred in an intermediate country; if such halts or legal operations have occurred, the final intermediate country shall be regarded as the country of consignment.
Country of destination In the case of extra-EU trade, 'country of destination' means the last country to which it is known, at the time of export, that the goods are to be delivered.
Country of dispatch Is the country form which imported goods have been dispatched.
Country of origin Country of origin' shall mean the country where the goods originate. Goods which are entirely obtained in a country originate in that country. An item in the production of which two or more countries are involved originates in the country where the last significant processing or working, economically justified and carried out in an enterprise equipped for this purpose and leading to the manufacture of a new product or representing an important stage of manufacture, takes place.
Court of Appeal Is present in every district's capital and is organised into two sections: civil and criminal. Is competent in civil and criminal law for deciding on appeals against appealable judgements made by the "Tribunale" (High Court) and some judgements by the "Pretura" (Magistrates' Court).It is also directly competent on several other issues, such as: recognition of foreign sentences, re-habilitation, etc.Every Court of Appeal comprises a special section for young persons, which judges appeals against decisions by the Young Persons' Court (in civil and criminal law).Finally, another special section operates as Court of Assizes for appeals, judging on appeals against sentences by the Court of Assizes.
Court of Cassation Is based in Rome, and there is a sole Court for the whole Italian State. The Court of Cassation comprises six sections: three are competent in civil law and three in criminal law.Is competent on appeals against judgements made in appeal or non-appealable judgements in the first degree.The Court of Cassation is the supreme organ of the justice system, and assures the observance of law and its correct interpretation, the respect of the limits of the various jurisdictions.
Coverage rate Ratio of exports to imports, generally at constant prices.
Credit intermediaries Banks, leasing, facotring and credit companies registered in the Special Register (art. 107 of the Italian Banking Code)
Crime Is an offence punished by imprisonment, fine or other sanctions.
Criminal proceedings Comprises all actions aimed at verifying and confirming criminal responsibility relating to a given behaviour that is considered a crime.
Crop rotation Crop rotation is the practice of alternating annual crops grown on a specific field in a planned pattern or sequence in successive crop years so that crops of the same species are not grown without interruption on the same field. Normally the crops are changed annually, but they can also be multiannual. To distinguish arable land from permanent crops or permanent grassland, a threshold of five years is used. This means that if a plot is used for the same crop for five years or more, without in the meantime removing the preceding crop and establishing a new one, it is not considered arable land.
Crop rotation Crop rotation is the practice of alternating annual crops grown on a specific field in a planned pattern or sequence in successive crop years so that crops of the same species are not grown without interruption on the same field. Normally the crops are changed annually, but they can also be multiannual. To distinguish arable land from permanent crops or permanent grassland, a threshold of five years is used. This means that if a plot is used for the same crop for five years or more, without in the meantime removing the preceding crop and establishing a new one, it is not considered arable land.
Cross-trade road transport International road transport performed by a road motor vehicle registered in a third country. A third country is a country other than the country of loading/embarkation or than the country of unloading/disembarkation.
Current operating income Current operating income is a term based on company accounting concepts. It is the sum of all current income relating to operating activities. Using the standard presentation of a profit and loss account laid down in Article 23 of the Fourth Council Directive on the annual accounts of certain types of companies, this is made up of:- Net turnover;- Variation in stock of finished goods and work in progress;- Work performed by the undertaking for its own purposes and capitalised;- Other operating income.
Current taxes on income and property Are all compulsory payments made by units to the Public Administration and to international organisations (such as the EU). In particular, taxes on income and property comprise: taxes on natural persons' income, taxes on enterprises' profit, current taxes on households' estate or capital.
Current transfers Are aimed mainly at re-distributing income. They include: current taxes on income and property, social contributions, social benefits, other current transfers
Custody of children Temporary rearing of a child by a family different from the natural one, by a single person, by a family-type community, or in an assistance institution. In Italy custody of children is regulated by Law 4 May 1983 n. 184.
Customers (electricity) Comprises companies supplying electricity, wholesalers, and final consumers.
Cyclical variation Change with respect to the previous quarter

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